Causes and treatment options for endometriosis

Woman with endometriosis discusses her experiences with a friend inside a restaurant

Key takeaways

  • Amenorrhea is when a woman doesn't have periods when she normally would do

  • Primary amenorrhea is when a woman has never started having periods. Secondary amenorrhea is when a woman has started having periods which then stop

  • When caused by things like pregnancy or menopause, secondary amenorrhea is not unexpected, but it can also be a symptom of underlying health problems

  • Secondary amenorrhea may be treated with hormone medications or with lifestyle changes

Contents of this article

Endometriosis is a condition in which the cells from the lining of a woman’s uterus are found in other places of the body. It’s a chronic but common condition that affects around 1 in 10 of all women of reproductive age (women who are able to have periods). There is currently no cure but, with treatment, you should be able to keep your symptoms under control.

What is endometriosis?

During your menstrual cycle, if you are not pregnant, the tissue lining your womb will break down roughly once a month. The tissue breaks down into blood, which leaves your body as a period.

Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue from inside the womb is found outside the womb, usually in the pelvic region.

When this womb tissue breaks down into blood outside your womb, it can’t leave your body as a normal period. This leads to inflammation, irritation and can cause painful periods and other symptoms.

Endometriosis is not contagious, an infection, or an immune disease. Another common misconception is that endometriosis is a form of cancer, which it is not.

What causes endometriosis?

The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown. Most doctors believe that your genes play a role. You’ll be more likely to have endometriosis if your sister, mother or grandmother has it, too.

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

No two women’s experience of endometriosis is the same. The condition affects every woman differently. One woman might experience severe pain during her period, with no abnormal bleeding, while another might experience the opposite.

Common symptoms of endometriosis include:

  • painful periods or chronic pain
  • pain during ovulation
  • infertility
  • pain during and after sex
  • spotting or unusual bleeding
  • tiredness or fatigue
  • pelvic pain

Living with endometriosis can affect your overall mental, physical and social wellbeing. If you are experiencing painful periods and think you might have endometriosis, you should visit your GP to discuss ways to manage your symptoms.

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

Endometriosis can be difficult to diagnose without visiting a specialist doctor or gynaecologist. At present, the only way to properly diagnose endometriosis is by performing what’s known as a laparoscopy.

A laparoscopy is an examination that’s carried out under a general anaesthetic, where you will be put to sleep. You should be able to go home on the same day. A small tube with a camera on the end will be inserted into your belly button. It will record pictures so that the doctor can see if there’s any endometriosis tissue. A small tissue sample (a biopsy) may also be taken.

According to recent research, it takes on average 7 to 8-and-a-half years for endometriosis to be diagnosed from the time a woman first shows symptoms. It’s important to make sure you make your GP aware of your symptoms as soon as you experience them. Don’t wait for the full diagnosis to seek help for your pain or uncomfortable symptoms.

How is endometriosis treated?

Treatment for endometriosis will be tailored to your individual situation, as every woman experiences endometriosis differently. With proper treatment and support, you should be able to carry out your usual activities and live comfortably with endometriosis.

The three main treatment options for endometriosis are: surgery, hormones, and pain management.

  • Surgery (laparoscopic excision) – this is a lot like the laparoscopy exam. It can often be carried out at the same time as your diagnosis, if you wish. During the surgery, patches of endometriosis tissue will be removed in order to relieve your symptoms and help your fertility.
  • Hormones (oral contraceptive pill, intrauterine contraception, progestin) – endometrial tissue needs the hormone oestrogen to grow. Therefore, your doctor may prescribe you hormones that stop or slow down your body’s production of the oestrogen.  
  • Pain management – everyday pain management is an important part of treatment. Painful symptoms can be managed with painkillers, although taking too many isn’t advised. See below for more advice on managing your pain.

Hysterectomies are no longer recommended as treatment for endometriosis. If someone offers you the option for a hysterectomy to cure your endometriosis, you should seek a second opinion, as unfortunately, there’s no cure for endometriosis.

Can my diet affect endometriosis?

There is some evidence to show that a poor diet makes the symptoms of endometriosis worse. As a general rule, the better your diet, the healthier you will be.  

Generally speaking, you should avoid eating too much red meat, dairy, wheat and sugar if you have endometriosis. Soy products can also aggravate symptoms, as can caffeine or alcohol.

Diets rich in B vitamins, fibre and Omega-3 fatty acids (found in nuts and fish) are good for symptoms of endometriosis.  

Endometriosis, fertility and pregnancy

While there is a link between endometriosis and infertility, it’s important to remember that having endometriosis does not mean you’ll be infertile.

Around 30-40% of women with endometriosis will have difficulty getting pregnant. However, many women are able to get pregnant naturally or with reproductive aid (like IVF). Talk to your doctor if you’re concerned about your fertility, especially if you’re about to have surgery.

If you have endometriosis and get pregnant, you might have some temporary relief from your symptoms. But pregnancy is not a complete cure. After you’ve given birth, it’s possible that your symptoms will return.

How can I manage my pain?

Alongside treatment, there are some things that you can do to manage painful symptoms of endometriosis.

Try to exercise as much as possible. It can be difficult to keep active when you’re in pain, but staying still or lying in bed often makes the pain worse. Try going for a short swim or walk when you feel up to it.

Avoid taking too many painkillers or analgesics, which can make your pain worse over time. Talk to your GP, nurse, or a pain psychologist if chronic pain is a daily concern. There are also pain clinics you can visit for further advice and treatment.

Visit http://www.endometriosis.ie/ for more information, to find local events and support networks in your area.

Order your contraceptive pill online
View treatments

Contraceptive Pill Service

Contraceptive pills are a reliable way of reducing your risk of getting pregnant from sex. Zava offers most common brands of pill, so you can order your preferred brand by visiting our contraceptive pill service page.

Customer reviews
star full star full star full star full star full (1334)
star full star full star full star full star full by JsLBright, 28 Jun 2018
I am very happy with the speed of delivery and the whole assessment and ordering process. I used Zava for smoking cessation medication. My request was assessed via a medical questionnaire, which, I believe, was then passed onto a medical professional. Less than hours later I received the message from one of their GPs that my request has been approved, I was given full information about the medication (and was made clear numerous times that I was expected to read this), as well as a medical contact person for immediate and future queries. After I paid I then received my meds in the post a day later. Can't fault this service at all and can recommend it 100%. The best thing is, this medication really does work and it's now my fourth day without cigarettes.
star full star full star full star full star full by Bel, 16 Jul 2018
Fantastic, prompt & professional service! Will definitely use again!
star full star full star full star full star full by Don, 20 Dec 2018
Quick and efficient. My first experience gives me confidence to use them again.
star full star full star full star full star full by Helen, 12 Mar 2018
excellent service, simple to use and speedy delivery of BP meds, well done Dr. Ed!
star full star full star full star full star full by Karin, 07 Jan 2018
Fast and efficient customer service.

gmc logo GPC logo

Authorised and regulated by